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Thread: Medicine for Starters

  1. #1
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    LightbulbMedicine for Starters

    Objective of the Thread

    Hi,

    This thread has been created to familiarize fresh Medical students (including myself) with the medical profession, studying tips and strategies and basics of Medical subjects to be studied in first year of M.B.B.S before the start of classes in December 2012. Hopefully, it will include links to books, useful websites, educational videos, medicine apps and much more all chosen in line with the M.B.B.S syllabus as outlined by PMDC, UHS and HEC. It is hoped the posted information proves helpful and takes us all on the path to excel through Medical School and fulfill our most cherished childhood dream of becoming doctors.
  2. #2
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    Content of the Thread

    1. Introduction to Medicine

    1.1. Medical School
    1.2. Medical Profession
    1.3. What it means to be a Medical Professional

    2. M.B.B.S Syllabus outline (Pakistan)

    2.1. PMDC Outline
    2.2. UHS Outline for 1st Professional (Part I and II)
    2.3. HEC Outline for 2012

    3. Starting with the basics
    3.1. Basic Medical terminologies (PDF file 1.6 MB)
    3.2. Anatomy Basics familiarization book
    3.3. Physiology basics familiarization book
    3.4. Biochemistry basics familiarization book

    4. First Year Medical Subjects Study Material
    4.1. List of 1st year subjects
    4.2. Medical Subjects Study Material (with following subheadings for all subjects: Introduction, Recommended books, Free Apps, Useful websites)
    4.2.1. Anatomy & Histology
    4.2.2. Physiology
    4.2.3. Biochemistry
    4.2.4. Embryology
    4.2.5. Behavioral Sciences

    5. Studying Tips

    5.1. Websites
    5.2. Helpful Videos

    6. Effective Studying Strategies

    6.1. Articles
    6.1.1. How to Study Effectively
    6.1.2. Study Method for Medical School
    6.1.3. Strategies for Studying
    6.1.4 Great Advice for New Medical Students (Medstudentz thread)

    6.2. PDF and other Documents
    6.2.1. Ohio School Studying strategies Study.

    6.3. Book
    6.3.1.Success types in Medical Education (A book that aids you to choose a studying strategy that works for you)
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  3. #3
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    Introduction to Medicine

    1.1. Medical School:
    The video ?Succeeding in Medical school? gives a bird?s eye-view of Medicine i.e. from Medical school to fellowship.
    Video link:
    P.S. When Youtube is unblocked, then view this video.

    1.2. Medical Profession: Gives an idea of things to consider before going ahead.





    1.3. What it means to be a Medical Professional:
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    M.B.B.S Syllabus (of Pakistan)

    2.1. PMDC:
    2.2. HEC:

    2.3. UHS (1st Professional)
    Part 1:
    Part 2:
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    3. Starting With the Basics

    Before starting medical studies, you need to be familiar with the basics. Here is some of the material worth reading:

    3.1. Basic Medical Terminology:
    If you know the basic word parts (Prefixes, suffixes, roots and stems), Medicine will become 50% easier for you. So this is worth a read. Use anyone of the following. I recommend Basic Medical Terminology.

    3.1.1. Medical terminology Healthwrite Training Academy
    Link:

    3.1.2. Basic Medical Terminology
    Link:

    3.1.3. Medical Terminology Online Version 2.0
    Link:


    3.2. Anatomy and physiology:
    An illustrative book that covers major concepts that should be on one?s fingertips. I have the 3rd Edition, but only 1st edition is available online.
    Book: Anatomy and Physiology an Incredibly Visual Guide, 1st Edition:
    Link:


    3.3. Physiology
    Book: Human Physiology:
    Link:

    3.4. Biochemistry:
    3.4.1. Book: Basic Concepts in Biochemistry
    Link:

    3.4.2. Book: Biochemistry for Dummies
    Link:
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    4. First Year Medical Subjects Study Material

    4.1. List of 1st year subjects:
    1. Anatomy
    2. Histology
    3. Physiology
    4. Biochemistry
    5. Embryology
    6. Behavioral sciences
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    4.2. Medical Subjects- Anatomy &Amp; Histology

    4.2.1. Introduction to
    a. Anatomy:

    b. Histology:



    4.2.2. Basics Book:
    a. Gray?s Basic Anatomy International Edition Review:


    4.2.3. Recommended Books (till the time you get the hard copies, use these):
    4.2.3.1. Anatomy:
    a. Gray?s Anatomy (Latest 39th Edition): or

    b. Cunnings Manual of Practical Anatomy:
    Volume 1: -
    Volume 2: -
    Volume 3:

    c. Clinical Anatomy by Snell, Latest Edition
    or


    d. Snell?s Clinical Neuroanatomy, latest 7th Edition:


    4.2.3.2. Histology:
    a. Wheather?s Histology:




    4.2.4. Medical apps:
    a. Anatronica: .

    b. Anatomy Lab 2.0: (excellent program, only for iphone though, couldn?t find link)
    c. Anatomy Guide (Pocket book)

    d. Histology Atlas:

    4.2.5. Useful Websites:






    Last edited by rizwan94; October 17th, 2012 at 03:08 PM. Reason: Title
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    4.3. Medical Subjects-Physiology

    4.3.1. Introduction:




    4.3.2. Recommended Books;
    a. Textbook of Medical Physiology (Gyton), latest 12th Edition:


    b. Review of Medical Physiology by Gangong, Latest Edition
    [Link Removed Due to Copyright Complaints]

    c. NMS Textbook of physiology, Latest 4th edition



    d. Berne and Levy Physiology (latest 6th Edition):
    [Link Removed Due to Copyright Complaints]

    e. Human Physiology: The Basis of Medicine by Gillian Pocock, Christopher D. Richards, 3rd Ed.



    4.3.3. Physiology Apps:
    a. Physiology Pocket Guide:


    4.3.4 Useful website:





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    4.4. Medical Subjects-Biochemistry

    4.4.1. Introduction:

    4.4.2. Recommended books:
    a. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry:
    Harper’s Biochemistry by Robbert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, Victor W. Rodwell, 28 Edition

    b. Biochemistry by Stryer
    Biochemistry by Stryer, Lubert, 5th Edition

    c. Lippincott’s Illustrated Biochemistry
    Lippincotts Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry - Richard A. Harvey, Denise R. Ferrier

    d. Lehinnger’s Principles of Biochemistry
    Principles Of Biochemistry 5 Ed



    4.4.3. Biochemistry Apps:
    a. Biochemistry Lap suite;

    b. Biochemistry normal values;


    c. icell



    4.4.4. Useful Websites:

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    rizwan can you tell me exactly how much subjcts are included like anatomy, physiology............. sory i got it great effort rizwan thanx a lot
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    4.5. Medical Subjects- Behavioral Sciences

    4.5.1. Introduction:
    a.

    b.

    4.5.2. Recommended Books; Recommended books pdf versions are not available online.

    4.5.3. Useful Book: To get an idea of what we will be studying in Behavioral sciences, read this book:
    Behavioral Science: BRS

    4.5.4 Useful Websites: Still searching for good websites.
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    Quote Originally Posted by h.a. View Post
    rizwan can you tell me exactly how much subjcts are included like anatomy, physiology.............
    According to UHS syllabus breakdown, we have to study 6 subjects which I listed, and we have to cover these in two parts (part i and part ii). So, 6 subjects to be studied in both parts. There breakdown is given in UHS syllabus part 1 and then second half in part 2, you'll have to open that link see it.
    Is this what you were asking?
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    4.6. Medical Subjects- Embryology

    4.6.1. Introduction:
    a.
    b.

    c.

    4.6.2. Recommended books;
    a. Embryology:
    Atlas Of Descriptive Embryology

    b. Langman’s Embryology:
    Langman’s Medical Embryology, 11th Edition

    4.6.3. Useful website (scroll down to Embryology):
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    Alternate source for all recommended books:
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    Quote Originally Posted by rizwan94 View Post
    According to UHS syllabus breakdown, we have to study 6 subjects which I listed, and we have to cover these in two parts (part i and part ii). So, 6 subjects to be studied in both parts. There breakdown is given in UHS syllabus part 1 and then second half in part 2, you'll have to open that link see it.
    Is this what you were asking?
    ya got that i were confusing part 1 and 2 like year 1 and 2 thanx

    Your attitude, not your aptitude, will determine your altitude.
    - Zig Ziglar
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    5. Study Tips

    Try incorporating these tips into your own study strategies to be a successful medical student. These tips have been collected from those who've been there ? junior doctors and GP registrars.

    Study Tip 1 ? Keep organized. Medicine is a high-volume course that progresses and builds on complex concepts. However, many areas of study can be broken down and grouped to help you organize and easily recall the steps. Take one general topic, and list all its subtopics underneath it. Keep diagrams concise so that you can review them for quick reference and comparison.

    Study Tip 2 ? Start with the big picture. Sift through the assigned chapter or unit in the beginning of your studies and get a rough idea of what you will be covering. While you are skimming through, decide which material must be thoroughly understood versus the minor details that can be memorized closer to the exam date. Take your time and think through the steps of the major concepts while you have plenty of time. More than likely, the mundane facts will only reside in your short-term memory and will only frustrate you if you first attempt to memorize words and diseases you don?t understand.

    Study Tip 3 ? Know the terminology and nomenclature well. Most of the time this can be accomplished by paying attention to the stem of the word. Take hypertrophy for example, which describes an increase in cell size. The stem -trophy often refers to cellular growth and dimensions. If hyper- is added to any term, it usually means an increase, or greater than normal levels. So it is easy to see how the pathologic process of increased cell size is described by its term hypertrophy.

    Study Tip 4 ? Compare and contrast. Every time you are studying something, ask yourself ?How is this different from . . . and how is this similar to . . . ?? Medicine is full of dichotomies and many disease processes overlap each other, thus making it easy to confuse them with each other. Some common examples are Benign vs. Malignant, Transudate vs. Exudate, Reversible Injury vs. Irreversible.

    Study Tip 5 ? Study every single day ? being a good student requires developing good study habits. As cliched as this is, it is really, really important as a med student. There is a huge volume of material being presented, and it is very easy to fall behind. Even if you can't study every single day, try to read at least a little bit whenever you can.

    Study Tip 6 ? Study in a group ? again, somewhat cliched advice, but the key here is to choose your friends wisely and to strictly limit how much time you study with them. Ideally, you should do all your studying on your own, and use group studying time as a review or to clarify confusing points. The sessions should be rapid fire and limited to no more than an hour or two a week. The ideal study group is one with similar views on studying and work ethic that complements your knowledge base well.

    Study Tip 7 ? When in doubt, ask ? simple advice, but sometimes, we are all averse to asking questions for fear of looking dumb. However, in this age of email, it never hurts to shoot off an email with well-phrased questions than you have already tried to answer. This not only helps academically, but it helps to also develop relationships with people in fields you may be interested in in the future when you have to choose a specialty.

    Study Tip 8 ? Translate the notes you receive into your own condensed, easy-to-read version This helps you internalize the knowledge in a way you can easily access. If you find yourself having trouble doing this, it is usually a good sign that either the material was not presented well or you are not fully understanding it (or both).

    Study Tip 9 ? Although some people find it a good idea, drinking absurd amounts of coffee/tea/any other caffeine source is not always a good move, especially on the day before an exam. You?ll crash eventually and may end up feeling groggy.

    Study Tip 10 ? Enjoy what you are doing ? if you find yourself getting bored while you study, stop. Take a break, and think of a way to make what you are studying interesting, whether that is by turning it into a game, making it interactive, more visual, or even reading interesting case reports online of a related disease. Sometimes, pegging the knowledge onto a case report or vignette can make the information much more "sticky" in your mind, which is all that matters.


    Source:
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    More Tips

    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.
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    5.2. Helpful Videos



    NOTE: All of these vidoes are on Youtube. I forgot to give titles to them, so I don't know which is which.
    Kindly, wait till youtube is unblocked and then view them.
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    6. Effective Studying Strategies

    Preview:
    1.1 How to Study Effectively
    1.2 Improving study habits and making good grades
    1.3. Study smart - effective learning skills or effective study skills
    1.4 Take care of yourself to study well

    Effective learning skills

    Effective learning skills or effective study skills are what decide your success or failure at college or high school. Most teenagers have difficulty sitting down to study, concentrating on the job at hand and being fully equipped for an exam much in advance. This article here is specially meant for those who have this question how do I study and study well? Success or failure depends heavily upon how well one is prepared, how efficiently the time at hand has been utilized and how much has been retained at the end of all studying. Here are some comprehensive tips or guide to effective learning skills and getting maximum results out of the time that has been put to use.

    1.1 How to study Effectively

    Prepare the environment around you before you start studying. Make sure that your room is in order, you have completed all your tasks at hand and the time that you have allotted to study will not be disrupted by other activities. Switch off your mobile phone, TV and any other source of distraction. Get your table organized first. Ensure only what you need to study is there on your table.

    Prepare your mind for studying As you are going about preparing your physical environment, prepare your mind for studying. Decide how many chapters you need to study within a given time. Take only what you can accomplish. Do not let anxiety or fear come in even before you start studying. Tell yourself since you have set achievable goals, you can do it. Every time doubts arise during a study period, keep telling yourself that you can study effectively and achieve your goals.

    Create a study routine
    Have specific hours of study which is purely devoted for studying; make sure that whatever your other activities may be, you are at your desk ready to study. Having a routine creates an effective learning habit. It also mentally prepares you for the task at hand. When you have a set routine, it is easy to tell friends not to call you during these times and also to ensure that you do not get distracted by activities at home. It is very important to keep your mind stuck on to the job at hand. A routine always helps you because you do not have a choice. It also sends clear messages to others that this is your study time and you are not to be disturbed.

    Set goals Having long term goals will help keep the bigger picture in mind. This will be based more on time frames and the amount of studying to be done during those periods. While setting long term goals make sure you build in a few days into your schedule for any contingencies. Also build in revision time at the end of the term.

    Short term goals are very important. They may be for weeks or even days which are very specific and goal oriented. These include having proper time tables at hand. Having a bulletin board will serve as a reminder for topics that need your attention, what has to be completed, where you are lagging behind or what are the specific doubts that need more focus. Having it above your study desk would be extremely useful.
    Decide to work according to the schedule you have made for yourself. Your commitment to your goals is what will determine your success.

    Difficult chapters first

    As you are setting out to study take up the most difficult chapters first. It is easier to plan your time and adjust it accordingly when you tackle the difficult chapters first. It will enable you to devote more time and attention to those areas which need attention. Once you are through with the difficult chapters, the easier chapters do not appear to be Herculean any more so there is less anxiety towards the end.

    Summarize or review at the end of every study session
    At the end of every study session, revise, review, recollect and summarize what you have studied. Make sure that you have put these points very briefly somewhere on your text or note book . This will help you remember the key points without having to spend too much time on what you have already studied when you get back to it later.

    Take frequent breaks: Never study in marathon sessions, your mind needs refreshing after 45 minutes, so make sure you take a break of 10 to 15 minutes, not more before you get back to studying. Also ensure that these breaks do not take much longer for you may have to prepare your mind once again to get back into the study mode. During the breaks, watching TV or playing video games will actually not help refresh your mind because they keep your mind active. When taking a break, go out inhale some fresh air, get into some rigorous physical activity like playing games which will help you take in enough oxygen which will refresh you mentally.

    Avoid time wasters What most people do not know is that, when you have learned something but have forgotten and you are trying to remember it with no success, is high up on the list of time wasters. Look up the answers rather than struggle to remember. Studies have proved that when you try to remember something that you don’t remember, you tend to get into the error mode, so even when you study it right later, you will find yourself making errors because your mind has recorded the error mode where you have spent more time. It is best to look up answers immediately, repeat them a few times over, and if possible, look up the same information on the internet or from a different source.

    1.2 Improving study habits and making good grades

    Attention span
    Studies have proved (Bjork, 2001) that you need a number of sessions to process information adequately. One marathon session may never be enough. Psychology has proved that if you need to retain some information, you have to give the subject enough attention. Studying in long cramming sessions, loads a lot of information into your short term memory. What is there in your short term memory may not be retained completely by your mind. You may find yourself forgetting a lot of details. To convert information from short term to long term memory, you need to repeatedly pay attention to the information at hand. A number of study sessions helps transfer information from short term memory to long term memory.

    Concentration
    Reduce all distractions, both internal and external to improve your concentration. It is easier to reduce external distraction but it would take a lot of effort from your side to reduce internal distraction. You really need to switch off all those activities that keep taking your mind back to them. For example, dating, watching movies, television, outings with friends, video games, etc. These tend to suck up a lot of your study time. Even though you seem to be with your books you are not actually studying. You also have the mental satisfaction of having studied though your mind has been elsewhere. Most people are often fooled by the fact that they have studied for long periods of time and students often ask each other how many hours they have studied. Not only is it superfluous and self- deceiving, it does not mean a thing. If you have studied with absolute concentration for ten minutes, it could be worth more than three hours of studying by rote without concentration.

    Your emotional state decides your level of learning
    Try to downplay anxiety, frustration, nervousness or worry at any point of time before you sit down to study. Being worried or anxious or nervous affects your concentration. So just do your bit and relax. Another huge time - waster is worrying and calling up your friends. You not only focus on your negative state of mind, but you are also wasting someone else’s time.

    Be open to receiving inputs and feedback
    Taking inputs from those who have conquered the task efficiently is a must, feedback from teachers with specific inputs regarding the areas where you need concentrate helps you focus better. Taking inputs from peers whenever you have a problem would also be helpful, two heads are better than one. But make sure these clarification times do not run into your study time or those of the others. A bulletin board will help you here. Make notes of those problem areas where you need clarification and put them on the notice board so that at a later time you could get required clarification from your friends or teachers.


    1.3 Study smart - effective learning skills or effective study skills

    in class helps you concentrate better while enhance your concentration further. When you practice good note taking skills, revisions become easier and more effective.

    Learn repeatedly
    One sure-fire method for effective learning or studying is to learn repeatedly. Practice makes perfect. Concepts that are frequently repeated are never forgotten

    Study concepts that are interrelated
    Plan to study chapters that are related to each other at one go. Studying concepts that are related, linking them and understanding them together will help you retain concepts for a longer period of time. Using mnemonic techniques would also help you remember concepts well. Mnemonic techniques are utilising imagery, humour, joke, song for a particular concept to help you remember it.

    Teach as you learn
    Teaching is twice learning. Whatever you have learnt gets fully engraved in your memory by repetition. When you teach, you repeat and elaborate concepts that you know. You also rehearse what you have learnt. Quite often, while you elaborate concepts, you will realize which part of the concept you have understood and which part you have not. This leads to revision of concepts. When you elaborate on what you have learnt, the concepts become more clear, which in turn ensures that they stay in your memory for a longer period of time Teaching your friends or someone who has not understood the concept will help you understand and retain the concept better. If you do not have anyone to teach, try teaching yourself, doing it exactly the way you would teach someone else.

    Visualisation is another technique to retain what you have studied in your memory. Visualising procedures, techniques, processes in your minds eye help them to be retained in your memory over long periods of time.

    Use different techniques of studying or learning.
    Learning has to be consistent and methodical. Cramming up chapters at the last minute is a very unreliable method of learning. Since most of the information is stored in the short term memory, as newer information is being input, the older information tends to fade out, and thereby, you tend to forget a lot of information even though you have studied.
    Employing other like doing things practically, looking up concepts on the internet, reading encyclopedias, attending lectures on the subject and other tools, as audio’s or audio -visual CDs on the subject will also help to enhance your concentration and memory. Choose those methods that you are best suited to, and you will see a lot of progress.

    1.4 Take care of yourself to study well

    Have nutritious, natural, healthy food Ignoring your health is one major flaws that teenagers or college students have, this could turn out to be a major stumbling block to your success. Falling sick could cut down your study time or even stop you from taking the exam or test for which you are preparing. Take care of yourself, eat good nutritious natural foods, avoid junk food and drink plenty of water. Drinking a lot of water helps the flow of your blood to your brain and keeps you refreshed and attentive throughout your study period. Avoid all sugary foods. There are some foods which are excellent for your brain, you should try to include such in your normal diet.

    Include physical activity in your schedule
    Short spurts of activity, exercise and plenty of fresh air will also help your body to co-operate with your mind. Having prepared sufficiently and with so much effort, your immunity may go down so you really need to ensure that you are in the best of health and do not fall sick during the most important period of your life.

    Rest
    Your body needs sufficient amount of rest. Most often students cram at the last minute from both ends. Neither your body nor your mind can take that kind of strain. You need to ensure that you get at least 8 to 9 hours of sleep every day, so that you are fully awake, alert and well able to perform to your potential. Sleep disturbances lead to various other problems like anxiety, depression, lowering of immunity, difficulty in concentrating, emotional upheavals, and stress and strain. None of these help you to perform to the level that you are capable of. It is absolutely necessary to take good care of yourself in the period running up to the exams as well.

    If you have adhered to most of these techniques, you are sure to be successful in your efforts and come at top of the class. And here’s wishing you all the very best in all your endeavors.
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    6.1.2 STUDY Method Techniques FOR Medical Students (Superb Advice)

    Part I: What it takes to be an Excellent Student

    In a very basic sense, we all learn the same. We must understand the material and then see it over and over again. In undergraduate, because of the low volume of learning, a person can get away with all sorts of weaknesses. However, the best students will often not have to alter their study methods at all for medical school.


    To be a good student, the intangibles are required: work-ethic, dedication, and self-confidence. However, in medical school, you will discover that almost everyone has that. The filtering process of undergraduate has removed most of those that lacked these intangibles. At this point it comes down to study method. The students who have the best methods are called geniuses. The students who have the worst methods flunk out or barely pass. Get this in your mind and keep it there: It is the study method that makes the good student!!!

    Now, one last important point, it is most important that one realizes that every good study method comes down to just a few things. You must understand the material by translating it in your own language. You must then review the material over and over again. You need to see the material at least 4 times with an optimum of at least 6 times. And finally, you need to review over several days. That is the best way to do it. When methods have these simple points in them, they are good methods.


    Part II: 3 Most Common Mistakes by Medical Students:

    Please note: Premed students make many of the same mistakes..

    1st MISTAKE: Don?t oversimplify the material..
    I?ve now had the chance to watch many students flunk out. Every single one of them gave the same response. ?Well, the material was easy to understand. It?s just the volume of information.? Wrong, Wrong, Wrong? The few times that I spoke to a student about this, I would ask them questions about the material that they understood. Again and again, I would notice a superficial memorization process in their answers. This is why they were overwhelmed on the questions. Medical school and USMLE test questions are conceptual. You don?t get that many memorization gimmies. You need to understand the material and manipulate it in your mind. Understanding the material is not easy. It takes effort, but it is a rewarding endeavor.

    2nd MISTAKE: Don?t just read and reread the material. You must take your own notes..
    I?ve seen this countless times. In almost every case the student who did this was failing. A good student takes their own notes and transcribes things into their own words. This is critical because you are translating the notes into a language that you understand. Students who don?t do this will end up failing. This is basic study strategy and it must be done.


    3rd MISTAKE: Don?t start to review the material on the day before the test.
    Student who are doing bad are often as tired as they can be. They stay up all night before the test slaving. They put in incredible 18 and 19 hour study days on the day before a test.. Yet they still do bad. You have to understand that the mind is a muscle in many ways. You can?t work it for 18 hours straight. Review needs to start well-before the day before the test. Give those concepts time to become entrenched within your mind. In undergraduate, you can get away with not doing this. In medical school, it?s a very bad idea. Remember, medical school is like the pros. You need to be better. A good method has review built into it, such as the method that I will present.

    Part III: An Effective Study Method

    Here is an overview of one study method that will work in medical school. Enjoy. Let?s begin. This method will address every defiency that medical students make. It comprises following parts:
    1.1 Previewing
    1.2. Getting something out of the lecture
    1.3. Covering the Material
    1.4. The Review Phase
    1.5 Summary

    1.1. PREVIEWING
    : You must preview a lecture. You can count this as the first time that you seen the material. Before every lecture, I preview the material. Now, I should explain where most medical students go wrong -- where I went wrong. Previewing the material SHOULD not involve reading it for 2 hours! That is LEARNING the material.

    Previewing involves creating a roadmap in your head. You need to develop a feel for where the lecture is going. This will remarkably increase comprehension. There are two methods for doing this:

    Method 1: 8 Sentence PROCESS-ORIENTED Method
    Look over the lecture. Write 8 general sentences explaining the lecture. The 8 sentences need to relate as a process. Make sure that you leave plenty of space between each point. The goal is to come back and fill in the details under those 8 points. Always be aware that the main point of this is to create a roadmap in your head. You need to have a feel for where the lecture is going. Within time, you will be able to do this in a few minutes. Please remember that you don?t need to learn the lecture during the preview phase! You just need to develop a feel for where it is going.

    Method 2: 8 Sentence QUESTION-ORIENTED Method
    Look over the lecture. Write 8 general questions that you have about the lecture. The 8 questions need to cover multiple aspects of the lecture. Make sure that you leave plenty of space between each question. The goal is to come back and fill in the answers under those questions. Again, be aware that the main point of this is to create a roadmap in your head. You need to have a feel for where the lecture is going. Within time, you will be able to preview within a few minutes. Please remember that you don?t need to learn the lecture during the preview phase! You just need to develop a feel for where it is going.

    Now, let?s do a brief tab. So far, you have seen the material one time for preview. You only went over it for a few minutes, but those were an essential few minutes as you will now come to see.



    1.2. GETTING SOMETHING OUT OF LECTURE: THE ACTUAL LECTURE ITSELF:
    This part is relatively simple if you engaged in the previewing method.

    Derivation 1: You need to bring your 8 or 10 sentence list to class. As the professor lectures, check each point that you feel the professor has covered as the professor lectures over it. You may still take notes on another sheet of paper. But use the "checklist." It takes two seconds to check a sentence. Whenever the professor has not touched something, put a question mark by it. Use the question mark if you don't understand something also. Write it down and then put a question mark by it.


    IMPORTANT: it is extremely important that you put a question mark by anything that you don't understand and IMMEDIATELY see the professor about it! Now, after class is over or during class, ask questions about everything that you don't understand. Don't be embarassed. Just tell the professor that you didn't understand it.


    Derivation 2: Write down each point that you don?t understand on a separate sheet of paper. Go see the Professor about it.
    Now, there is a Part II to getting something out of lecture. If the professor initally explains something and you still don't understand it go to the professor?s office hours. Ask the professor to explain it again while politely telling him or her that you didn't get it. If you still don't understand it, ask the professor again -- but this time try to be more specific in determining what aspect of the professors explanation is causing problems. If you don't understand it for a third time, go home.. pull out a book. Read it. Come back the next day and ask the professor to explain it again. You will most likely get it. It is important to understand that you can still do well in medical school without going to lecture. It?s just that you will have to study a lot longer and harder than if you learn how to retain information from lecture. It?s advantageous to use a proven method, such as this one, that will help you utilize things like lectures.

    IMPORTANT OPTIONAL DERIVATION: Many learning psyschologist maintain that you should do an additional step. You should take 10-15 minutes immediately after the lecture to re-read the material. I will personally do this, but it is optional. Supposedly, studies have shown that it greatly increases comprehension. Time for a Tally. You have seen the material one time for Preview. You have also seen the information 1 time in lecture. That is two times. If you do the Optional Derivation, then you have seen the material 3 times! But lets assume that you don?t do the optional derivation. You?re at two times right now. It?s time to learn how to cover a lecture..


    1.3 COVERING THE MATERIAL(Next Stage of Learning):

    This should be the third time that you see the material within 24 hours (possibly fourth)! When you finish covering the lecture, you should have everything entered into memory, save a concept or two that you will need to ask the professor about for clarification. You must learn to become a transcriber. This means that you must get used to transcribing the notes or books that you have been reading into your own, concise words. This needs to be in an organized format. Something that naturally flows within your own mental construct. What?s important is that you learn to word your notes in a clear, concise fashion.

    Second, and this is extremely, extremely, extremely important. You must diagram. Now, you might find yourself copying diagrams and pathways. That?s okay. You need to do that. But challenge yourself to try and create your own diagrams and drawings also. The process of learning and memory works like this. Learning something is a skill.. That is, you understand something as a process and you are able to master the process within your mind. Afterwards, you form logical representations within your mind of various relationships. This is what enters the information into long-term memory. You?re a thinker suddenly. Your thinking through your information as you study it. You?re finding relationships, and it enters memory. That is the whole key to learning! You have to form relationships.
    Think about this.. What is a mnemonic.. A mnemonic is simply a relationship that links words to a simple concept. In essence, you are forming a primitive relationship of the scientific material so that it enters memory. Now, imagine the power of forming your own relationships. You will remember things longer and faster.

    Train yourself how to think through material. Many medical students never master that and they pass. But they never become excellent at mastering the scientific material. You can, but you have to work hard to learn how to do this..

    Importance Of Diagrams And Drawings
    Now, I can explain why the diagram and drawing is so important. The diagram that you make represents interconnecting relationships that you have made yourself. At least that is the case when you make your own diagrams. Use drawings, use boxes, use learning trees ect.. Try to understand the process. Challenge yourself to make at least 5 diagrams per a lecture at the beginning. After that, you will naturally find how many you need for the information to enter memory.

    Finally, make sure that you understand everything. If there is word that you don?t know know, look it up! If there is something that you don?t understand, ask for help. You need to understand these concepts to form relationships.

    IMPORTANT: There is a common question that should be addressed. People often ask how to diagram and how they should ask their questions. That is a very good question, and it is easy to answer. The best way to learn how to word your own notes is to look at the professor?s lectures. Take a look. You will notice plenty of diagrams along with concise, interconnecting points. When you get done with covering the material, your information should look like a lecture that you prepared. Imagine yourself getting ready to present it in front of the class. Imagine having to answer questions about the material. That?s the key to covering this stuff.

    After you finish going through all the trouble to make your own notes, make sure that you organize them in a folder. You will use these for the review process. It is time to take a Tally. You have now seen the material 3 times (4 times if you do the optional way). You know it (mostly). Now, it is essential that you review like a madman or madwoman. This is where the difference between a high-pass and honors student takes place.



    1.4 THE REVIEW PHASE

    If you don?t remember anything else, remember this: The Review Phase Must Happen Over Time! Let me say it again. The Review Phase Must Happen Over Time! The best method of review is to do it over time, not all in one day.

    Review 1: This occurs the day after lecture. Spend no more than 10-15 minutes reviewing a particular subject each day. But there is an art to reviewing also. Most students make the often repeated mistake that I used to make. They simply scan over the material and call it review.. Hell NO!
    This is how you review. Read over your previous notes ? the ones you made the day before. You?ll be able to do this in about 5 to 10 minutes after you get a little bit of practice.
    However, while doing this, you will need to do something else. You will need to do something that I haven?t seen mentioned anywhere else on the web. You need to challenge yourself to add at least 5 sentences to your notes.

    Now, in these 5 sentences, you should be able to link concepts to something else. Write down the relationship in a brief sentence. You will become so good at this that you will be able to do this in 10 minutes.. It is essential that you link your notes to existing concepts within your mind. This is how things stay in long-term memory.

    2nd Review.. Now, you need to see the material a 5th time. This time spend 5 minutes skimming over the lecture ? mainly looking at the major points of your concise, diagrammed, lecture notes. Try to add at least 2 sentences to it. It should take no more than 5 minutes.
    At this point, you are done with the material for one day.. So, let?s recap really quickly.

    In review, you spent 10-15 minutes going over the previous days lecture. You added 5 sentences to your previous notes linking them to existing concepts within your mind. During the other 5 minutes (you need to spend 20 minutes reviewing), you went over the material that you reviewed before ? adding 2 sentences to it. Once again, you are linking it to an existing concept within your mind. Concept building is the key to learning. Okay, so by now.. You?ve seen the material 5 times in 72 hours!! You?re probably saying enough already..

    But it is not over yet. 6th.. During the weekend, you must do a master review. You need to re-read over all the material that you were given. You can skim through it, but you need to go over it for around 2 and a half hours. And guess what.. You need to add more sentences. Try to add 5 to 10 sentences over the entire week of information. This will be the 6th time that you see the information. In fact, spend every weekend reviewing the material for that entire unit!! So, that you never forget it.

    7th.. Finally, let?s fastfoward. The day before the test. Spend 4 or 5 hours reading through all of your concise notes and sentences that you added. You?re ready to make close to a 100% on the test. Reread through the original lecture notes also.

    One special note.. You will realize that you will see the material multiple, multiple, multiple times. But each time that you see it, you add something to it. In essence, you never get behind.
    Now, I once had a question that you may have right now. I realized that you would see the material several times for older information. But what about the new information. Remember, that by the third time that you see the material, you should know everything. So, it will be fresh in your mind by test time. Plus, you do a master review on the day before the test. So, you will see everything at least 4 times. Most things, however, you will see at least 7 times!
    Think about it.. By 7 times, you will probably be sick of the material!!!


    1.5. SUMMARY

    Oh, what I would have given for someone to have given this to me before medical school. Please remember that there are a variety of different methods that will work in medical school, but the best methods are the same. They all involve understanding the material and reviewing it like crazy. Seeing the information multiple times is the key.

    As an afternote, I am including two other methods that I have seen successful students use. I want to emphasize that the method that I gave is very good. It?s turned many poor students into top students. It?s turned good students into better students. But, it?s good to see other methods. Notice one common thing. All of the good methods involve the same basic principle. You must understand the material and then see it over and over again.
    h.a., jamal, saleem khan and 7 others like this.
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